Agents have become like tsetse flies,” Sir Alex Ferguson wrote in his autobiography. “These days they are everywhere in football, and almost all of them do nothing but feather their own nests and mess up the relationships that players have with their clubs and managers.”
The former Manchester United manager’s perception of agents is shared by many in the industry and the recent Football Leaks report has compounded this negative perception, as it was revealed that high-profile intermediaries routinely design tax-evading schemes and outlandish compensation models on behalf of their clients.
One particular bone of contention for Ferguson was Mino Raiola, the agent who convinced Paul Pogba to leave the club in 2013 before bringing him back last summer, receiving a commission of €27 million (Dh104m) in the process.
Raiola is among an exclusive group of ‘super agents’, whose overbearing networks influence not just their clients’ careers but also entire clubs. His part in Pogba’s transfer from Juventus, the highest ever at €120m (Dh462m), cannot be understated and he also made Zlatan Ibrahimovic the most expensive footballer cumulatively in history at €157m (Dh605m), brokering moves across eight clubs.
With more money flowing into football, thanks chiefly to TV rights and wealthy owners, some agents are accused of favouring their own financial interests above those of their players.
But the resulting uproar will soon change the way their work is regulated, while technology will have an independent say on how transactions are carried out.
Footballers traditionally hire intermediaries to find clubs and negotiate the best deals for them. Although an agent is not mandatory, it has become the norm since the Bosman ruling in 1995. A total of 2,232 football transfers involved at least one intermediary in 2016, more than in any other year.
Agents were licensed by national federations and remunerated with a percentage on the transfer fee and on their player’s basic salary, usually ranging from 3-10 per cent. Since 2013, $1.1 billion (Dh4.04bn) in commission has been paid by clubs to intermediaries.
A transfer can be divided into three stages: first, the initial contact between club and player; then the negotiation of terms between selling club and buying club and between buying club and player; and finally the administrative registering of the transfer after it is agreed by all parties.
This process has evolved over time, due both to technological improvements and a desire to regulate each stage.
In the initial phase, agents used to pitch their players to clubs who then considered whether to initiate transfer discussions. This resulted in informational asymmetry as intermediaries pushed their own players and sometimes impeded the forces of the market by favouring one club over another through exclusivity clauses.
At the end of the process, when two clubs reached an agreement over a player, the transfer had to be registered with national federations and FIFA. This involved complicated procedures of faxes and letters that left space for inaccuracies over transfer figures, usually exploited by agents who sometimes negotiated specific payments from buying or selling club.
Ferguson notably accused Raiola of turning Pogba’s head towards Juventus, disregarding the player’s interest. Les Reed, who oversees the renowned Southampton academy that has produced the likes of Gareth Bale, Theo Walcott and Luke Shaw, agrees agents sometimes encourage player movements at too young an age.
“Intermediaries have taken advantage of a highly competitive market of player trading and player contracting,” Reed tells Sport360. “The biggest money in football is in the Premier League and top clubs are so competitive that intermediaries can easily manufacture a situation to manage the deals.”
Elsewhere, the influence of agencies has had similarly unhealthy consequences. Serbia is among the top exporting countries in the world for footballers, but its domestic league has been weakened by the activity of intermediaries.
When Red Star Belgrade won the Champions League in 1991, rules in the former Yugoslavia prohibited players from moving abroad until the age of 28. In 2016, the FIFPro Global Employment report indicated that 82 per cent of current players in Serbia felt pressured for a transfer by their agent.
Super agents can leverage their player networks to gain a foothold within clubs, bringing in not just one but several clients at a time, sometimes even throwing in a coach too. A recent investigation by The Times revealed that some Premier League clubs engage in dual representation, hiring agents to work both for the player and the club for tax and VAT purposes.
Reed believes clubs must wrestle control back and wants to see better control of agent fees, which have escalated independently of salaries and transfers.
Another issue is with intermediaries asking for payments upfront, which sometimes leads to agitation to move a player again early in his contract. Agents can be in a position to delay a move during negotiations, and provoke one prematurely after a transfer is agreed.
“This can change only if enough clubs raise these issues with the relevant governing bodies,” Reed adds. “It must happen if the industry is not going to spiral into an ever increasing outflow of money generated by the game; leaving the game.”
A tipping point from FIFA’s viewpoint was third-party ownership (TPO) – the practice of football agencies becoming owners of players’ economic rights. It led to agencies earning both transfer-generated commissions from clubs and salary-generated commissions from subsequent player contracts. FIFA banned TPO and deregulated the status of agents in January 2015, meaning no licence was needed to be an intermediary.
Rather than defusing the clout of super agents, it arguably strengthened them by increasing their networks’ visibility and splitting up the rest. Players can change agents on a whim and are surrounded by competing intermediaries fighting for their representation.
“FIFA is trying to kill agents,” Michael Manuello, whose agency represents Olivier Giroud and Francis Coquelin of Arsenal, says. “Discussions about agents’ commissions are exaggerated in many cases, as our fees result from prices agreed between clubs through the forces of the market with no interference from intermediaries.”
Independently of ethics, technology has helped to address market gaps. In the initial stage of the transfer process, clubs now have objective information thanks to software like Wyscout and ProZone, which offers data on thousands of players across hundreds of leagues. Scouting software enables recruitment departments to receive early information on young players and filter acquisition candidates before initiating contact. Clubs thereafter increasingly have moved towards club-to-club contacts, with intermediaries having no control over which player a club is going to pursue.
Technology will also change the scope of agents’ work, as pointed out by Financial Times journalist Simon Kuper at a SportsTrade conference in Lisbon this year. “Agents will use data to identify good players and show it to clubs to prove they are worth signing,” he said.
For the last stage of the transfer process – the administrative recording of a transaction – FIFA implemented a Transfer Matching System (TMS) in 2010 to formally register each transfer; an online platform that requires various information be inputted in order to rubber-stamp deals. This has improved transparency and prevents agencies from negotiating unchecked fees.
The temperatures plunged to freezing and the world recognised superstars were elsewhere.
Yet as Major League Soccer closed its 21st season in Toronto on Saturday night, commissioner Don Garber would have fought the arctic conditions with the warm glow of satisfaction.
When Seattle slotted in the winning sudden-death penalty after 120 minutes of pure statemate – the Sounders failed to muster a shot on target in normal or extra time – history was made in what was ultimately a disappointing, fractious finale.
It was the League’s best supported club’s first-ever MLS title.
“They are a shining light,” purred Garber afterwards. Indeed, this triumph and Toronto’s trip to the season denouement rubber stamps a new era for soccer on these shores, one where the most important players are those in their prime rather than ageing legends searching for that final pay day.
Steven Gerrard, Frank Lampard, Didier Drogba and Robbie Keane all bid farewell to the League last month.
Thierry Henry and Tim Cahill left two seasons ago. Keane was a stellar import for the LA Galaxy, arguably the greatest designated player of all time, though the rest won’t be missed too much by fans here.
Garber won’t shed many tears either. His desperation for equality among all means seeing teams stockpiled with Premier League castoffs isn’t the aim.
Toronto’s Sebastian Giovinco arrived in MLS at the age of 27 and his thirst for something new cost him a place at last summer’s Euros.
The Italian is one of the best paid players, raking in around $8 million a year, yet has proved fantastic value scoring more than 40 goals in two seasons. For Seattle, Uruguay playmaker Nicolas Lodeiro (below) has effortlessly filled the more box office voids of Obafemi Martins (departed for Chinese millions) and Clint Dempsey (health issues) with some classy displays.
When I left Liverpool, I came to Los Angeles with the goal of helping the Galaxy lift another MLS Cup, I am of course disappointed to have not achieved that objective, but I can look back at my time at the club with pride at what we accomplished, including two straight playoff appearances and countless memorable moments on the pitch. As someone who spent the whole of their career in Liverpool, it has been an incredible experience to come to Los Angeles and play for the LA Galaxy. I would like to thank Mr. Anschutz, Dan Beckerman, Chris Klein and Bruce Arena for this opportunity. I would also like to thank my teammates, the coaching staff, all of the support staff and most importantly the fans for their fantastic support during my time at Galaxy; I am excited to see this league and this great club continue to grow. I am now looking forward to spending time with my family as I consider the next stage of my career .
Both are in the prime of their careers while the Sounders’ Jordan Morris is the apple of Garber’s eye – a US rookie who snubbed European teams to stay at home.
Furthermore, these two sides are what many in MLS aspire to: well supported, well run and not afraid to spend money.
“Now with their first title, Seattle are a MLS super-club, “ said former US defender Alexi Lalas.
Others have certainly begun to adopt a more youthful policy. F.C. Dallas were the form team in the regular season whose designated players were all up and coming players in their twenties.
Los Angeles and New York have little choice but to make transfers fitting of their glitzy, star hungry fanbases and surroundings.
Everyone else, however, are wising up and reaping the benefits.
As my time at NYCFC comes to an end I would like to thank so many people for the kindness and support that they have shown me over the last two years. My teammates have been a pleasure to play alongside. The amazing fans have given me incredible support and backing. All the people that work behind the scenes at NYCFC have made it so easy for me to work and settle here. I have very much enjoyed my time, and I am very grateful to have had the opportunity to play for such a great club and in such an incredible city. I leave with many great memories as I embark on the next stage of my career and I’ll be making an announcement very soon. @nycfc
Naturally, the marketing men will look at the stats with some concern. Dallas’ crowds were the lowest in MLS while it was NYCFC’s golden oldie Andrea Pirlo – not Giovinco – who sold the most shirts. The former Juventus midfielder is a household name – his younger compatriot isn’t.
The importance of a viable future however trumps all. Garber wants his baby to become the ‘league of choice’.
Restrictions on movement within MLS as well as the unique pay structure and huge travelling commitments in the United States means it won’t suit everyone.
Yet with every successful campaign seeing the League grow inexorably, progress is undeniable.
“I would argue Sebastian Giovinco is worth every penny we are paying him, regardless of what the Italian national team coach might think about him,” said Garber.
“Seattle and Toronto are the best example of this change in strategy.
“That’s a very strong statement for where MLS is today versus where we were many years ago.
“Without doubt the target is younger players who are coming at the prime of their career or even as they’re beginning to establish their career.”
The times are undoubtedly changing.
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